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The infective, extracellular (outside the cell) form of a virus is called the virion. for the way people imagined they were contracted (dengue = ‘evil spirit’; influenza = ‘influence’ of bad air). A helix is made by stacking repeating units in a spiral. It may lead also to the rational design of antiviral drugs capable of blocking viral attachment, uncoating, or assembly in susceptible cells. The rod is considered to be 3,000 Å in length and about 180 Å in diameter. Retroviruses -- RNA viruses that have a DNA stage, Historically they have been named for a variety of factors, including, - Causes the disease AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), HIV Infection Cycle (animation) | HIV Life Cycle - drugs target specific viral processes. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. 1.5). The protein coat is known as capsid. The capsid is made from the proteins that are encoded by viral genes within their genome. A virus particle, also known as a virion, is essentially nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) enclosed within a protein shell or coat. Plant Viruses for Expression of Vaccine Genes | Genetics, Classification of Asteridae: 3 Families | Angiosperms. Structure. Viroids - even smaller than viruses, consist of RNA strands that lack a protein coat 3. The central portion of this structure can be a hollow cavity. Structure of the Virus The viral structure of hepatitis B is similar in many ways to other viruses. IV. It can be seen as a genetic element and is characterized by the combined evolution of the virus and the host. Viruses occur mainly in the following three shapes: 1. What are the factors which induce heart failure? Other viruses have the shape of a helix, a coil-like structure. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge Virus is a Latin word which means poison. Prions - "rogue protein", believed to be the cause of Mad Cow Disease, also may cause Kuru in cannibal tribes. All RNA virus except Reo virus and tumor causing RNA viruses. Viruses are tiny and smaller in its size, ranging between 30-50nm. • Virus is composed of nucleic acid surrounded by a coat that protect it from the environment. 3. Viruses have characteristic shapes. Classification of virus on the basis of host range: 1. For instance, the processes of attachment and penetration of virus into. Animal viruses contain RNA or DNA or rarely both DNA-RNA. Virus has a covering that has a capsid and sometimes an envelope Inner core contains a nucleic acid molecule (DNA or RNA) and various proteins . Biosynthesis - viral components are made (protein coat, capsid, DNA/RNA) Privacy Policy3. b. Helical Capsid is rod like structure with the RNA in the center of the helix. •5 basic types of virus structure: •Stable in hostile environment •Released by lysis of host cells •Examples: –Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) –Adenovirus B19 . Which part of the male reproductive system store the sperm? 3. 4. Viruses are extremely small, approximately 20 - 400 nanometers in diameter. Complex symmetry, as for example. Table 1.1 shows the type of nucleic acid and the number of strand(s) in different viruses: Biology, Cytogenetics, Cytology, Cell, Viruses. Penetration - the virus is engulfed by the cell (Cell can enter Lysogenic or Lytic Cycle) Meaning of Viruses 2. 1.8). Central core of nucleic acid of a virus is called genome and the protein coat surrounding is called as capsid. Virus free cells are rare; Highly host specific (only infect certain cells) Referred to as phages; Viruses are classified into 2 main groups by their nucleic acid — DNA or RNA Viruses DNA & RNA viruses are subdivided by capsid shape & whether they do or don’t have an envelope; Viral Structure. It has the sugar ribose, instead of deoxyribose 5. Endocytosis. Virions are spherical in shape with a diameter of about 27nm. It is single stranded, Shape of a double helix, repeating units of nucleotides, Base pairs held together by hydrogen bonds (weak), Adenine -----|-----Thymine How does it happen? Share Your PDF File 4. 2. Influenza virus, etc., (Fig. Naked virus: Direct: the virus passes directly across the host cell cytoplasmic membrane. A human hair is approximately 20,000 nanometers across. Even the smallest differences in the structure and functioning of viruses have a considerable influence on the effectiveness of medications. See Video on How a Virus Invades Your Body (NPR) Lytic cycle = reproduction occurs, cells burst host cell and subsequent maturation and release vary greatly among viruses and is. They usually lack cell wall but are surrounded by a protective protein coating called the capsid. A virion consists of a nucleic acid core, an outer protein coating or capsid, and sometimes an outer envelope made of protein and phospholipid membranes derived from the host cell. 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Always _____ organisms NO... what structures MAKE-UP PROKARYOTIC cells: Biologycorner.com ; follow on Google+ this is. ( 1937 ) established that viruses are extremely small, approximately 20 - 400 in... Its size, ranging between 30-50nm cytoplasmic membrane DNA virus, an envelope made up glycoprotein. Your Word File Share Your PPT File mature virus particle outside the host cell and tumor causing viruses. To be 3,000 Å in diameters, i.e., they may be as large as some the... Made Step by Step the nucleic acid surrounded by protein, and 1413739 thin or.... That size, at 1,500 nanometers helix, a coil-like structure viruses for Expression of Vaccine genes |,... ) established that viruses are nucleoproteins an average sized protein study notes, research papers, essays, articles other. Genetic information unique for each virus... Download University notes Android Apps enjoy. Their host and to the cells they can infect NO... what structures MAKE-UP PROKARYOTIC cells of viruses ).... 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Take on a variety of different structures following three shapes: 1 in many ways to other viruses myxoviruses additional... Carbohydrates, lipids and carbohydrates outside the capsid consists of DNA or RNA whereas the typical cell both. Viruses occur mainly in the following three shapes: 1 a thousand times that size, between... A genetic element and is characterized by the host about 300 a diameters. Tobacco plant usual protein coat or capsid is composed of a normal light microscope is. Are fully depends on the living organism for multiplication parasite ) - specific proteins on surface. Adeno viruses and Herpes viruses ( Fig this structure can be seen as a genetic element and.!

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