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All soon declared war on Germany. Millions of people moved to and from British colonies, with large numbers of Indians emigrating to other parts of the empire, such as Malaysia and Fiji, and Chinese people to Malaysia, Singapore and the Caribbean. Gilded Age (1870–1900) of the United States, was a period of rapid growth in industry. [126] Although Britain controlled Egypt into the 20th century, it was officially part of the Ottoman Empire and not part of the British Empire. Pays Conquis: a set of conquered, although supposedly independent, countries which were ruled by people approved by Napoleon (largely his relatives or military commanders), designed to buffer France from attack. [196], Following the surrender of Japan in the Second World War, anti-Japanese resistance movements in Malaya turned their attention towards the British, who had moved to quickly retake control of the colony, valuing it as a source of rubber and tin. A deal between the two nations left the spice trade of the East Indies archipelago to the Netherlands and the textiles industry of India to England, but textiles soon overtook spices in terms of profitability. At its peak, the empire covered much of western South America. The British Empire ruled over 23% of the total population in the world equivalent to 412 million by 1913 and covered about 24% of the Earth's total land area e… [173] The war weakened the empire in other ways: undermining Britain's control of politics in India, inflicting long term economic damage, and irrevocably changing geopolitics by pushing the Soviet Union and the United States to the centre of the global stage. 12 Jul 100 BCE - 15 Mar 44 BCE. In these regions a colonial society developed in which Europeans, Indians and Africans mixed. The Portuguese Empire , also known as the Portuguese Overseas, was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance. [191] The borders drawn by the British to broadly partition India into Hindu and Muslim areas left tens of millions as minorities in the newly independent states of India and Pakistan. [253] Individual and team sports developed in Britain—particularly football, cricket, lawn tennis, and golf—were also exported. The UK retained the military bases of Akrotiri and Dhekelia as sovereign base areas. In 1496, King Henry VII of England, following the successes of Spain and Portugal in overseas exploration, commissioned John Cabot to lead a voyage to discover a route to Asia via the North Atlantic. The Emperor Constantine was regarded as an ancestor by the Byzantines.He was infact a ruler of Roman Empire. Shopping online is easy - buy coupon deals now and instantly redeem your discount online or in-person with our app. In the Pacific, Australia and New Zealand occupied German New Guinea and German Samoa respectively. Initially, interaction between the indigenous Māori population and Europeans was limited to the trading of goods. [252], Decades, and in some cases centuries, of British rule and emigration have left their mark on the independent nations that arose from the British Empire. [33] In 1655, England annexed the island of Jamaica from the Spanish, and in 1666 succeeded in colonising the Bahamas. Malacca joined the empire in 1795, and Sir Stamford Raffles acquired Singapore in 1819. This led to tension,[158] particularly in the Punjab region, where repressive measures culminated in the Amritsar Massacre. [116] The situation remained unresolved in Central Asia for two more decades, with Britain annexing Baluchistan in 1876 and Russia annexing Kirghizia, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan. [259] The British choice of system of measurement, the imperial system, continues to be used in some countries in various ways. Gibraltar became a critical naval base and allowed Britain to control the Atlantic entry and exit point to the Mediterranean. Maximum extent of the Pergamon Empire after Apamea peace. [40], In 1670, Charles II incorporated by royal charter the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC), granting it a monopoly on the fur trade in the area known as Rupert's Land, which would later form a large proportion of the Dominion of Canada. Between 1945 and 1965, the number of people under British rule outside the UK itself fell from 700 million to 5 million, 3 million of whom were in Hong Kong. [192] Millions of Muslims crossed from India to Pakistan and Hindus vice versa, and violence between the two communities cost hundreds of thousands of lives. Bazen. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Se… The foundations of the British Empire were laid when England and Scotland were separate kingdoms. AP.USH: KC‑7.3.I (KC), Unit 7: Learning Objective A. [59] This was summarised at the time by the slogan "No taxation without representation", a perceived violation of the guaranteed Rights of Englishmen. A joint force of British and Egyptian troops defeated the Mahdist Army in 1896, and rebuffed an attempted French invasion at Fashoda in 1898. This agreement was not divulged to the Sharif of Mecca, who the British had been encouraging to launch an Arab revolt against their Ottoman rulers, giving the impression that Britain was supporting the creation of an independent Arab state. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Despite encompassing an incredible five million-plus square kilometers by 117 AD, the vast expanse of the Roman Empire wouldn't be enjoyed for much longer. Later, under direct British rule, commissions were set up after each famine to investigate the causes and implement new policies, which took until the early 1900s to have an effect. [163] This led to increasing conflict with the Arab population, who openly revolted in 1936. [146], Under the terms of the concluding Treaty of Versailles signed in 1919, the empire reached its greatest extent with the addition of 1,800,000 square miles (4,700,000 km2) and 13 million new subjects. Britain acquired the Cape of Good Hope (now in South Africa) in 1806, and the South African interior was opened up by Boer and British pioneers under British control. "Empire" as a description of foreign policy, This page was last edited on 9 February 2021, at 14:56. Tensions remain between the white settler populations of these countries and their indigenous minorities, and between white settler minorities and indigenous majorities in South Africa and Zimbabwe. This list is a combination of the twenty divided " List of Latin phrases " pages. Sacrum Imperium Romanum (in Latin) Heiliges Römisches Reich (in German) 800/962 –1806: Imperial Banner (c. 1430 –1806) Coat of arms of Francis II The Holy Roman Empire at its greatest extent in the early to middle 13th century during the Hohenstaufen dynasty (1155–1268) superimposed on modern state borders. Latin language, Indo-European language in the Italic group and ancestral to the modern Romance languages. [138] A third bill was passed by Parliament in 1914, but not implemented because of the outbreak of the First World War leading to the 1916 Easter Rising. Joint Anglo-French financial control over Egypt ended in outright British occupation in 1882. [243] Under the terms of the 1842 Treaty of Nanking and 1860 Convention of Peking, Hong Kong Island and Kowloon Peninsula had been respectively ceded to Britain in perpetuity, but the vast majority of the colony was constituted by the New Territories, which had been acquired under a 99-year lease in 1898, due to expire in 1997. In practice, American anti-communism prevailed over anti-imperialism, and therefore the United States supported the continued existence of the British Empire to keep Communist expansion in check. A series of wars in the 17th and 18th centuries with the Netherlands and France left England (Britain, following the 1707 Act of Union with Scotland) the dominant colonial power in North America. [213] Although Britain granted Kuwait independence in 1961, it continued to maintain a military presence in the Middle East for another decade. Under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, Ottoman Empire marked the peak of its power and prosperity as well as the highest development of its government, social, and economic systems. The British Empire was composed of the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates, and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. In 1770 James Cook charted the eastern coast while on a scientific voyage, claimed the continent for Britain, and named it New South Wales. But the Brits were masters at empire building, and made up for the lost ground in places like India and Africa. The Latin Empire, also referred to as the Latin Empire of Constantinople, was a feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Byzantine Empire. [26], In 1603, James VI, King of Scots, ascended (as James I) to the English throne and in 1604 negotiated the Treaty of London, ending hostilities with Spain. [158] The non-cooperation movement was called off in March 1922 following the Chauri Chaura incident, and discontent continued to simmer for the next 25 years. The British Empire was also responsible for large migrations of peoples. Send-to-Kindle or Email . Language: english. Britain quickly invaded and occupied most of Germany's overseas colonies in Africa. The map above shows how big the Roman and Mongol Empires were at their respective peaks. In 1746, the Spanish and British began peace talks, with the King of Spain agreeing to stop all attacks on British shipping; however, in the Treaty of Madrid Britain lost its slave trading rights in South and Central America. The influence of Latin and French on the English language increased. [197] The fact that the guerrillas were primarily Malayan-Chinese Communists meant that the British attempt to quell the uprising was supported by the Muslim Malay majority, on the understanding that once the insurgency had been quelled, independence would be granted. The situation was complicated further by the increasing Cold War rivalry of the United States and the Soviet Union. While Britain continued to regard Ireland as still within the British Commonwealth, Ireland chose to remain legally neutral throughout the war. [47], During the middle decades of the 18th century, there were several outbreaks of military conflict on the Indian subcontinent, as the English East India Company and its French counterpart, struggled alongside local rulers to fill the vacuum that had been left by the decline of the Mughal Empire. The first column contains the English name and its variants, if one is common, otherwise the traditional ancient name. With support from the British abolitionist movement, Parliament enacted the Slave Trade Act in 1807, which abolished the slave trade in the empire. [143], The British declaration of war on Germany and its allies also committed the colonies and Dominions, which provided invaluable military, financial and material support. In Britain public opinion was divided over the morality of the massacre, between those who saw it as having saved India from anarchy, and those who viewed it with revulsion. Post WW2, the UK was bankrupt. O Scribd é o maior site social de leitura e publicação do mundo. [125] In 1875, the Conservative government of Benjamin Disraeli bought the indebted Egyptian ruler Isma'il Pasha's 44% shareholding in the Suez Canal for £4 million (equivalent to £380 million in 2019). [238], The 1980s also saw Canada, Australia, and New Zealand sever their final constitutional links with Britain. [232] Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu became Commonwealth realms. The Inka Empire rose rapidly and burned bright. At the beginning of the century the Austro-Hungarian Empire was the largest political entity in mainland Europe. In 1982, Britain's resolve in defending its remaining overseas territories was tested when Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands, acting on a long-standing claim that dated back to the Spanish Empire. It existed for almost 600 years from the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the grant of sovereignty to East Timor in 2002. [88], The Napoleonic Wars were therefore ones in which Britain invested large amounts of capital and resources to win. After independence, many former British colonies joined the Commonwealth of Nations, a free association of independent states. A dispute with Guatemala over claims to Belize was left unresolved. [251] Sixteen Commonwealth realms voluntarily continue to share the British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, as their head of state. Its people have been U.S. citizens since 1917, but they have no vote in Congress. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Settlers in Ireland from Great Britain have left their mark in the form of divided nationalist and unionist communities in Northern Ireland. Year: 2010. The empire established the use of the English language in regions around the world. The process leading to the formation of the Spanish empire is rooted in the Reconquista (reconquest), the Crusades undertaken in 722 C.E. Over 2.5 million men served in the armies of the Dominions, as well as many thousands of volunteers from the Crown colonies. In return, they were expected to conduct all their trade by means of English ships and to serve as markets for British manufactured goods. [222] To the three colonies that had been granted independence in the 1950s—Sudan, the Gold Coast and Malaya—were added nearly ten times that number during the 1960s. A vast amount of medical terminology used by the Romans also remained in use into the 21st century. In 1963, the 11 states of the federation together with Singapore, Sarawak and North Borneo joined to form Malaysia, but in 1965 Chinese-majority Singapore was expelled from the union following tensions between the Malay and Chinese populations and became an independent city-state. The ninth emperor, Montezuma II, was taken prisoner by Hernan Cortes and died in custody. Email. [105], The East India Company drove the expansion of the British Empire in Asia. The first British Empire: 1497-1763. In India, the East India Company was confronted by the French Compagnie des Indes, but Robert Clive’s military victories against the French and the rulers of Bengal in the 1750s provided the British with a massive accession of territory and ensured their future supremacy in India. [193], The British mandate in Palestine, where an Arab majority lived alongside a Jewish minority, presented the British with a similar problem to that of India. Bermuda was settled and claimed by England as a result of the 1609 shipwreck of the Virginia Company's flagship, and in 1615 was turned over to the newly formed Somers Isles Company. The Roman way of lif… The Revised Latin Primer Benjamin Hall Kennedy. [47], Peace between England and the Netherlands in 1688 meant that the two countries entered the Nine Years' War as allies, but the conflict—waged in Europe and overseas between France, Spain and the Anglo-Dutch alliance—left the English a stronger colonial power than the Dutch, who were forced to devote a larger proportion of their military budget on the costly land war in Europe. This wording was ambiguous as to whether it referred to European countries invaded by Germany and Italy, or the peoples colonised by European nations, and would later be interpreted differently by the British, Americans, and nationalist movements. A.12th century B.14th century C.15th century D.16th century (Correct answer is D) In what century were there the most revolts? [241] Independence had been delayed due to the opposition of the Sultan, who had preferred British protection. [226], Most of the UK's Caribbean territories achieved independence after the departure in 1961 and 1962 of Jamaica and Trinidad from the West Indies Federation, established in 1958 in an attempt to unite the British Caribbean colonies under one government, but which collapsed following the loss of its two largest members. Britain returned Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, and Réunion to France, and Java and Suriname to the Netherlands, while gaining control of Ceylon (1795–1815) and Heligoland. Aztec, Nahuatl-speaking people who in the 15th and early 16th centuries ruled a large empire in what is now central and southern Mexico. With the passage of the British North America Act, 1867 by the British Parliament, the Province of Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia were formed into Canada, a confederation enjoying full self-government with the exception of international relations. [136], The last decades of the 19th century saw concerted political campaigns for Irish home rule. [41], The signing of the Treaty of Paris of 1763 had important consequences for the future of the British Empire. The untested U.S. Navy proved superior to the Spanish fleet, and the military strategists who planned the war in the broader context of empire caught the Spanish by surprise. [99] Victory over Napoleon left Britain without any serious international rival, other than Russia in Central Asia. These sixteen nations are distinct and equal legal entities – the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Grenada, Jamaica, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu. It holds the record for the longest running empire—almost 3500 years! [55] France was left control of its enclaves but with military restrictions and an obligation to support British client states, ending French hopes of controlling India. The 1917 Balfour Declaration, which had been incorporated into the terms of the mandate, stated that a national home for the Jewish people would be established in Palestine, and Jewish immigration allowed up to a limit that would be determined by the mandatory power. Known as Tawantinsuyu, the Inca state spanned the distance of northern Ecuador to central Chile and consisted of 12 million inhabitants from more than 100 different ethnic groups at its peak… [128], With competitive French, Belgian and Portuguese activity in the lower Congo River region undermining orderly colonisation of tropical Africa, the Berlin Conference of 1884–85 was held to regulate the competition between the European powers in what was called the "Scramble for Africa" by defining "effective occupation" as the criterion for international recognition of territorial claims. [189], The pro-decolonisation Labour government, elected at the 1945 general election and led by Clement Attlee, moved quickly to tackle the most pressing issue facing the empire: Indian independence. It began with the overseas colonies and trading posts set up by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. This trade, illegal since it was outlawed by the Qing dynasty in 1729, helped reverse the trade imbalances resulting from the British imports of tea, which saw large outflows of silver from Britain to China. [148], The changing world order that the war had brought about, in particular the growth of the United States and Japan as naval powers, and the rise of independence movements in India and Ireland, caused a major reassessment of British imperial policy. [95][96], Between 1815 and 1914, a period referred to as Britain's "imperial century" by some historians,[97][98] around 10 million sq mi (26 million km2) of territory and roughly 400 million people were added to the British Empire. [89] Britain was again the beneficiary of peace treaties: France ceded the Ionian Islands, Malta (which it had occupied in 1797 and 1798 respectively), Mauritius, Saint Lucia, Seychelles, and Tobago; Spain ceded Trinidad; the Netherlands Guyana, and the Cape Colony. Amid the fighting, British forces continued to withdraw from Israel, with the last British troops departing from Haifa on 30 June 1948. Fighting between the British and French colonies in North America was endemic in the first half of the 18th century, but the Treaty of Paris of 1763, which ended the Seven Years’ War (known as the French and Indian War in North America), left Britain dominant in Canada. Eventually the Boers established two republics which had a longer lifespan: the South African Republic or Transvaal Republic (1852–1877; 1881–1902) and the Orange Free State (1854–1902). [37] In 1620, Plymouth was founded as a haven for Puritan religious separatists, later known as the Pilgrims. [131] During the 1880s and 1890s, Rhodes, with his privately owned British South Africa Company, occupied and annexed territories named after him, Rhodesia. [195] The UN General Assembly subsequently voted for a plan to partition Palestine into a Jewish and an Arab state. [113], During the 19th century, Britain and the Russian Empire vied to fill the power vacuums that had been left by the declining Ottoman Empire, Qajar dynasty and Qing Dynasty. The Company's army had first joined forces with the Royal Navy during the Seven Years' War, and the two continued to co-operate in arenas outside India: the eviction of the French from Egypt (1799),[106] the capture of Java from the Netherlands (1811), the acquisition of Penang Island (1786), Singapore (1819) and Malacca (1824), and the defeat of Burma (1826). [132], The path to independence for the white colonies of the British Empire began with the 1839 Durham Report, which proposed unification and self-government for Upper and Lower Canada, as a solution to political unrest which had erupted in armed rebellions in 1837. [260], The Westminster system of parliamentary democracy has served as the template for the governments for many former colonies,[261][262] and English common law for legal systems. READ MORE: Full Pandemics Coverage Many historians speculate that smallpox likewise brought about the devastating Plague of Athens in 430 B.C. The Mediterranean colony of Malta was amicably granted independence from the UK in 1964 and became the country of Malta, though the idea had been raised in 1955 of integration with Britain. It occupied much of central Europe spanning almost 700,000 square kilometers. The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, 117 AD, the time of Trajan's death (with its vassals in pink). [172] In August 1941, Churchill and Roosevelt met and signed the Atlantic Charter, which included the statement that "the rights of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they live" should be respected. Ireland had been united with Britain into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland with the Act of Union 1800 after the Irish Rebellion of 1798, and had suffered a severe famine between 1845 and 1852. British Empire, a worldwide system of dependencies—colonies, protectorates, and other territories—that over a span of some three centuries was brought under the sovereignty of the crown of Great Britain and the administration of the British government. [145] The important contribution of the Dominions to the war effort was recognised in 1917 by the British Prime Minister David Lloyd George when he invited each of the Dominion Prime Ministers to join an Imperial War Cabinet to co-ordinate imperial policy. [48], The death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and his bequeathal of Spain and its colonial empire to Philippe of Anjou, a grandson of the King of France, raised the prospect of the unification of France, Spain and their respective colonies, an unacceptable state of affairs for England and the other powers of Europe. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the crown exercised control over its colonies chiefly in the areas of trade and shipping. [161] Iraq, a British mandate since 1920, also gained membership of the League in its own right after achieving independence from Britain in 1932. The Eastern Roman Empire, with its capital in Constantinople. [242], In September 1982 the Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, travelled to Beijing to negotiate with the Chinese government, on the future of Britain's last major and most populous overseas territory, Hong Kong. [180] The realisation that Britain could not defend its entire empire pushed Australia and New Zealand, which now appeared threatened by Japanese forces, into closer ties with the United States and, ultimately, the 1951 ANZUS Pact. Some of the phrases are themselves translations of Greek phrases, as Greek rhetoric and literature reached its peak centuries before that of ancient Rome. Millions left the British Isles, with the founding settler populations of the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand coming mainly from Britain and Ireland. The Province of Carolina was founded in 1663. Jamaica was obtained by conquest in 1655, and the Hudson’s Bay Company established itself in what became northwestern Canada from the 1670s on. Responsible government was first granted to Nova Scotia in 1848, and was soon extended to the other British North American colonies. [16] At the same time, influential writers such as Richard Hakluyt and John Dee (who was the first to use the term "British Empire")[17] were beginning to press for the establishment of England's own empire. The British Empire was composed of the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates, and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. Nauru was made a combined mandate of Britain and the two Pacific Dominions. The Slavery Abolition Act, passed the following year, abolished slavery in the British Empire on 1 August 1834, finally bringing the Empire into line with the law in the UK (with the exception of the territories administered by the East India Company and Ceylon, where slavery was ended in 1844). 407 Germanic tribes overrun Gaul (France) 410 The Goths capture Rome. [41], Two years later, the Royal African Company was inaugurated, receiving from King Charles a monopoly of the trade to supply slaves to the British colonies of the Caribbean. Current, Rise of the "Second" British Empire (1783–1815), East India Company rule and the British Raj in India, Timeline of British diplomatic history § 1815–1860, History of the United Kingdom during the First World War, special administrative region of the People's Republic of China, driving on the left hand side of the road, Territorial evolution of the British Empire, History of the foreign relations of the United Kingdom, Historical flags of the British Empire and the overseas territories, "Letters Patent to Sir Humfrey Gylberte June 11, 1578", New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage, "Why was Slavery finally abolished in the British Empire? Series: Cambridge Library Collection - Classics. Give details of the Decolonisation phase. [49] The British Empire was territorially enlarged: from France, Britain gained Newfoundland and Acadia, and from Spain Gibraltar and Menorca. It began with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. Britain formally acquired the colony, and its large Afrikaner (or Boer) population in 1806, having occupied it in 1795 to prevent its falling into French hands during the Flanders Campaign. These, including 30,000 in Singapore and eastern parts of Africa was not a peaceful process content... Developed in Britain—particularly football, cricket, lawn tennis, and cultural legacy is widespread, for. Rejection of Parliamentary authority and moves towards self-government Jul 100 BCE - 15 Mar 44 BCE, Conservative! The Dutch encompassing an incredible five million-plus square kilometers redeem your discount online or in-person with app. That war-time strictures were renewed by the Romans also remained in place one is common, otherwise traditional! 1931, vestigial constitutional links had remained in place used them to trade all over world... ( KC ), Unit 7: Learning Objective a a dispute with over. Of his ships again that were so extensive that there was always at least one part of quote! By malaria, the colony of Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn areas of trade and.! ( permission to sell US reserves of the United Kingdom government was granted... Lif… how large was the Spanish Empire at it 's peak New words ( illustration 2 ) spices and.... 1811 – the peak of the nineteenth century the United Kingdom invaded and occupied most of Germany 's colonies... Lanka became members of the West Indies get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to content... Numbers of Jews the West Indies in 1871, after three successful Wars the... Joint Anglo-French financial control over its colonies chiefly in the East India Company had overtaken the colony... Colonies in Africa problem of mediating between the late 16th and early 18th centuries, Empire! Invaded from North Africa Army simultaneously began a guerrilla War against the British also. Up for the longest running empire—almost 3500 years Anglo-French financial control over its colonies chiefly in the Gambia in... Protestant Reformation turned England and Scotland were separate kingdoms telegraph cables, the... Large migrations of peoples CE ( aka 211 AD ) at the end of the British Parliament also the. In 1839, the Napoleonic Wars were therefore ones in which Europeans, Indians and Africans mixed Map is! India and Africa around the world 700,000 square kilometers ancient name inflection... another influence went out from capture... 4.2 children per mother during childbearing years in 2000 finally defeated by a coalition of European Nations Empire Apamea! Abolition Act ( 1833 ) provided refuge for religiously persecuted continental Europeans for hundreds years. Plans to buy large tracts of land and establish colonies in New Zealand achieved similar levels of after! Paris in 1783, when Great Britain made its first tentative efforts to establish overseas settlements in the.! And Africa Sassanid family kills the last British troops departing from Haifa on 30 June 1948 Humphrey Gilbert for and. The Great Depression in 1937 the Irish Republican Army simultaneously began a guerrilla War against the Empire... Communities in northern Ireland III, linking the Mediterranean with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by between...

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